# PETSc for Fortran Users#

Most of the functionality of PETSc can be obtained by people who program purely in Fortran.

## Modules and Include Files#

To use PETSc with Fortran you must use both PETSc include files and modules. At the beginning of every function and module definition you need something like

#include "petsc/finclude/petscXXX.h"
use petscXXX


You can declare PETSc object variables using either of the following:

XXX variablename

type(tXXX) variablename


For example,

#include "petsc/finclude/petscvec.h"
use petscvec

Vec b
type(tVec) x


PETSc types like PetscInt and PetscReal are simply aliases for basic Fortran types and cannot be written as type(tPetscInt)

The Fortran include files for PETSc are located in the directory $PETSC_DIR/include/petsc/finclude and should be used via statements such as the following: #include <petsc/finclude/petscXXX.h>  for example, #include <petsc/finclude/petscksp.h>  You must also use the appropriate Fortran module which is done with use petscXXX  for example, use petscksp  The few differences between the C and Fortran PETSc interfaces are due to Fortran syntax differences. All Fortran routines have the same names as the corresponding C versions, and PETSc command line options are fully supported. The routine arguments follow the usual Fortran conventions; the user need not worry about passing pointers or values. The calling sequences for the Fortran version are in most cases identical to the C version, except for the error checking variable discussed in Error Checking and a few routines listed in Routines with Different Fortran Interfaces. ### Error Checking# In the Fortran version, each PETSc routine has as its final argument an integer error variable. The error code is set to be nonzero if an error has been detected; otherwise, it is zero. For example, the Fortran and C variants of KSPSolve() are given, respectively, below, where ierr denotes the PetscErrorCode error variable: call KSPSolve(ksp,b,x,ierr) ! Fortran ierr = KSPSolve(ksp,b,x); // C  For proper error handling one should not use the above syntax instead one should use PetscCall(KSPSolve(ksp,b,x,ierr)) ! Fortran subroutines PetscCallA(KSPSolve(ksp,b,x,ierr)) ! Fortran main program PetscCall(KSPSolve(ksp,b,x)) // C  ### Calling Fortran Routines from C (and C Routines from Fortran)# Different compilers have different methods of naming Fortran routines called from C (or C routines called from Fortran). Most Fortran compilers change all the capital letters in Fortran routines to all lowercase. With some compilers, the Fortran compiler appends an underscore to the end of each Fortran routine name; for example, the Fortran routine Dabsc() would be called from C with dabsc_(). Other compilers change all the letters in Fortran routine names to capitals. PETSc provides two macros (defined in C/C++) to help write portable code that mixes C/C++ and Fortran. They are PETSC_HAVE_FORTRAN_UNDERSCORE and PETSC_HAVE_FORTRAN_CAPS , which will be defined in the file $PETSC_DIR/\$PETSC_ARCH/include/petscconf.h based on the compilers conventions. The macros are used, for example, as follows:

#if defined(PETSC_HAVE_FORTRAN_CAPS)
#define dabsc_ DABSC
#elif !defined(PETSC_HAVE_FORTRAN_UNDERSCORE)
#define dabsc_ dabsc
#endif
.....
dabsc_( &n,x,y); /* call the Fortran function */


### Passing Null Pointers#

Many PETSc C functions have the option of passing a NULL argument (for example, the fifth argument of MatCreateSeqAIJ()). From Fortran, users must pass PETSC_NULL_XXX to indicate a null argument (where XXX is INTEGER, DOUBLE, CHARACTER, SCALAR, VEC, MAT, etc depending on the argument type); passing a literal 0 from Fortran in this case will crash the code. For example, when no options prefix is desired in the routine PetscOptionsGetInt(), one must use the following command in Fortran:

call PetscOptionsGetInt(PETSC_NULL_OPTIONS,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,'-name',N,flg,ierr)


### Duplicating Multiple Vectors#

The Fortran interface to VecDuplicateVecs() differs slightly from the C/C++ variant because Fortran does not allow conventional arrays to be returned in routine arguments. To create n vectors of the same format as an existing vector, the user must declare a vector array, v_new of size n. Then, after VecDuplicateVecs() has been called, v_new will contain (pointers to) the new PETSc vector objects. When finished with the vectors, the user should destroy them by calling VecDestroyVecs(). For example, the following code fragment duplicates v_old to form two new vectors, v_new(1) and v_new(2).

Vec          v_old, v_new(2)
PetscInt     ierr
PetscScalar  alpha
....
call VecDuplicateVecs(v_old,2,v_new,ierr)
alpha = 4.3
call VecSet(v_new(1),alpha,ierr)
alpha = 6.0
call VecSet(v_new(2),alpha,ierr)
....
call VecDestroyVecs(2,v_new,ierr)


### Matrix, Vector and IS Indices#

All matrices, vectors and IS in PETSc use zero-based indexing, regardless of whether C or Fortran is being used. The interface routines, such as MatSetValues() and VecSetValues(), always use zero indexing. See Basic Matrix Operations for further details.

### Setting Routines#

When a function pointer is passed as an argument to a PETSc function, such as the test in KSPSetConvergenceTest(), it is assumed that this pointer references a routine written in the same language as the PETSc interface function that was called. For instance, if KSPSetConvergenceTest() is called from C, the test argument is assumed to be a C function. Likewise, if it is called from Fortran, the test is assumed to be written in Fortran.

### Routines with Different Fortran Interfaces#

The following Fortran routines differ slightly from their C counterparts; see the manual pages and previous discussion in this chapter for details:

PetscInitialize()
VecGetArray(), MatDenseGetArray()
ISGetIndices(),
VecDuplicateVecs(), VecDestroyVecs()
PetscOptionsGetString()


The following functions are not supported in Fortran:

PetscFClose(), PetscFOpen(), PetscFPrintf(), PetscPrintf()
PetscPopErrorHandler(), PetscPushErrorHandler()
PetscInfo()
PetscSetDebugger()
VecGetArrays(), VecRestoreArrays()
PetscViewerASCIIGetPointer(), PetscViewerBinaryGetDescriptor()
PetscViewerStringOpen(), PetscViewerStringSPrintf()
PetscOptionsGetStringArray()


PETSc includes some support for direct use of Fortran allocatable arrays. Current routines include:

VecGetArrayF90(), VecRestoreArrayF90()
VecDuplicateVecsF90(), VecDestroyVecsF90()
MatDenseGetArrayF90(), MatDenseRestoreArrayF90()
ISGetIndicesF90(), ISRestoreIndicesF90()


See the manual pages for details and pointers to example programs.

## Sample Fortran Programs#

Sample programs that illustrate the PETSc interface for Fortran are given below, corresponding to Vec Test ex19f, Vec Tutorial ex4f, Draw Test ex5f, and SNES Tutorial ex1f, respectively. We also refer Fortran programmers to the C examples listed throughout the manual, since PETSc usage within the two languages differs only slightly.

Listing: src/vec/vec/tests/ex19f.F90

!
!
program main
#include <petsc/finclude/petscvec.h>
use petscvec
implicit none
!
!  This example demonstrates basic use of the PETSc Fortran interface
!  to vectors.
!
PetscInt  n
PetscErrorCode ierr
PetscBool  flg
PetscScalar      one,two,three,dot
PetscReal        norm,rdot
Vec              x,y,w
PetscOptions     options

n     = 20
one   = 1.0
two   = 2.0
three = 3.0

PetscCallA(PetscInitialize(ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscOptionsCreate(options,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscOptionsGetInt(options,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,'-n',n,flg,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscOptionsDestroy(options,ierr))

! Create a vector, then duplicate it
PetscCallA(VecCreate(PETSC_COMM_WORLD,x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecSetSizes(x,PETSC_DECIDE,n,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecSetFromOptions(x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDuplicate(x,y,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDuplicate(x,w,ierr))

PetscCallA(VecSet(x,one,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecSet(y,two,ierr))

PetscCallA(VecDot(x,y,dot,ierr))
rdot = PetscRealPart(dot)
write(6,100) rdot
100  format('Result of inner product ',f10.4)

PetscCallA(VecScale(x,two,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecNorm(x,NORM_2,norm,ierr))
write(6,110) norm
110  format('Result of scaling ',f10.4)

PetscCallA(VecCopy(x,w,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecNorm(w,NORM_2,norm,ierr))
write(6,120) norm
120  format('Result of copy ',f10.4)

PetscCallA(VecAXPY(y,three,x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecNorm(y,NORM_2,norm,ierr))
write(6,130) norm
130  format('Result of axpy ',f10.4)

PetscCallA(VecDestroy(x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDestroy(y,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDestroy(w,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscFinalize(ierr))
end


Listing: src/vec/vec/tutorials/ex4f.F90

!
!
!  Description:  Illustrates the use of VecSetValues() to set
!  multiple values at once; demonstrates VecGetArray().
!
! -----------------------------------------------------------------------

program main
#include <petsc/finclude/petscvec.h>
use petscvec
implicit none

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!                   Macro definitions
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!
!  Macros to make clearer the process of setting values in vectors and
!  getting values from vectors.
!
!   - The element xx_a(ib) is element ib+1 in the vector x
!   - Here we add 1 to the base array index to facilitate the use of
!     conventional Fortran 1-based array indexing.
!
#define xx_a(ib)  xx_v(xx_i + (ib))
#define yy_a(ib)  yy_v(yy_i + (ib))

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!                 Beginning of program
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

PetscScalar xwork(6)
PetscScalar xx_v(1),yy_v(1)
PetscInt     i,n,loc(6),isix
PetscErrorCode ierr
PetscOffset xx_i,yy_i
Vec         x,y

PetscCallA(PetscInitialize(ierr))
n = 6
isix = 6

!  Create initial vector and duplicate it

PetscCallA(VecCreateSeq(PETSC_COMM_SELF,n,x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDuplicate(x,y,ierr))

!  Fill work arrays with vector entries and locations.  Note that
!  the vector indices are 0-based in PETSc (for both Fortran and
!  C vectors)

do 10 i=1,n
loc(i) = i-1
xwork(i) = 10.0*real(i)
10   continue

!  Set vector values.  Note that we set multiple entries at once.
!  Of course, usually one would create a work array that is the
!  natural size for a particular problem (not one that is as long
!  as the full vector).

PetscCallA(VecSetValues(x,isix,loc,xwork,INSERT_VALUES,ierr))

!  Assemble vector

PetscCallA(VecAssemblyBegin(x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecAssemblyEnd(x,ierr))

!  View vector
PetscCallA(PetscObjectSetName(x, 'initial vector:',ierr))
PetscCallA(VecView(x,PETSC_VIEWER_STDOUT_SELF,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecCopy(x,y,ierr))

!  Get a pointer to vector data.
!    - For default PETSc vectors, VecGetArray() returns a pointer to
!      the data array.  Otherwise, the routine is implementation dependent.
!    - You MUST call VecRestoreArray() when you no longer need access to
!      the array.
!    - Note that the Fortran interface to VecGetArray() differs from the
!      C version.  See the users manual for details.

PetscCallA(VecGetArray(x,xx_v,xx_i,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecGetArray(y,yy_v,yy_i,ierr))

!  Modify vector data

do 30 i=1,n
xx_a(i) = 100.0*real(i)
yy_a(i) = 1000.0*real(i)
30   continue

!  Restore vectors

PetscCallA(VecRestoreArray(x,xx_v,xx_i,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecRestoreArray(y,yy_v,yy_i,ierr))

!  View vectors
PetscCallA(PetscObjectSetName(x, 'new vector 1:',ierr))
PetscCallA(VecView(x,PETSC_VIEWER_STDOUT_SELF,ierr))

PetscCallA(PetscObjectSetName(y, 'new vector 2:',ierr))
PetscCallA(VecView(y,PETSC_VIEWER_STDOUT_SELF,ierr))

!  Free work space.  All PETSc objects should be destroyed when they
!  are no longer needed.

PetscCallA(VecDestroy(x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDestroy(y,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscFinalize(ierr))
end


Listing: src/sys/classes/draw/tests/ex5f.F90

!
!
program main
#include <petsc/finclude/petscsys.h>
#include <petsc/finclude/petscdraw.h>
use petscsys
implicit none
!
!  This example demonstrates basic use of the Fortran interface for
!  PetscDraw routines.
!
PetscDraw         draw
PetscDrawLG       lg
PetscDrawAxis     axis
PetscErrorCode    ierr
PetscBool         flg
integer           x,y,width,height
PetscScalar       xd,yd
PetscReal         ten
PetscInt          i,n,w,h
PetscInt          one

n      = 15
x      = 0
y      = 0
w      = 400
h      = 300
ten    = 10.0
one    = 1

PetscCallA(PetscInitialize(ierr))

!  GetInt requires a PetscInt so have to do this ugly setting
PetscCallA(PetscOptionsGetInt(PETSC_NULL_OPTIONS,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,'-width',w, flg,ierr))
width = int(w)
PetscCallA(PetscOptionsGetInt(PETSC_NULL_OPTIONS,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,'-height',h,flg,ierr))
height = int(h)
PetscCallA(PetscOptionsGetInt(PETSC_NULL_OPTIONS,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,'-n',n,flg,ierr))

PetscCallA(PetscDrawCreate(PETSC_COMM_WORLD,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,x,y,width,height,draw,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscDrawSetFromOptions(draw,ierr))

PetscCallA(PetscDrawLGCreate(draw,one,lg,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscDrawLGGetAxis(lg,axis,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscDrawAxisSetColors(axis,PETSC_DRAW_BLACK,PETSC_DRAW_RED,PETSC_DRAW_BLUE,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscDrawAxisSetLabels(axis,'toplabel','xlabel','ylabel',ierr))

do 10, i=0,n-1
xd = real(i) - 5.0
yd = xd*xd
10   continue

PetscCallA(PetscDrawLGSetUseMarkers(lg,PETSC_TRUE,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscDrawLGDraw(lg,ierr))

PetscCallA(PetscSleep(ten,ierr))

PetscCallA(PetscDrawLGDestroy(lg,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscDrawDestroy(draw,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscFinalize(ierr))
end


Listing: src/snes/tutorials/ex1f.F90

!
!
!  Description: Uses the Newton method to solve a two-variable system.
!

program main
#include <petsc/finclude/petsc.h>
use petsc
implicit none

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!                   Variable declarations
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!
!  Variables:
!     snes        - nonlinear solver
!     ksp        - linear solver
!     pc          - preconditioner context
!     ksp         - Krylov subspace method context
!     x, r        - solution, residual vectors
!     J           - Jacobian matrix
!     its         - iterations for convergence
!
SNES     snes
PC       pc
KSP      ksp
Vec      x,r
Mat      J
SNESLineSearch linesearch
PetscErrorCode  ierr
PetscInt its,i2,i20
PetscMPIInt size,rank
PetscScalar   pfive
PetscReal   tol
PetscBool   setls
#if defined(PETSC_USE_LOG)
PetscViewer viewer
#endif
double precision threshold,oldthreshold

!  Note: Any user-defined Fortran routines (such as FormJacobian)
!  MUST be declared as external.

external FormFunction, FormJacobian, MyLineSearch

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!                   Macro definitions
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!
!  Macros to make clearer the process of setting values in vectors and
!  getting values from vectors.  These vectors are used in the routines
!  FormFunction() and FormJacobian().
!   - The element lx_a(ib) is element ib in the vector x
!
#define lx_a(ib) lx_v(lx_i + (ib))
#define lf_a(ib) lf_v(lf_i + (ib))
!
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!                 Beginning of program
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

PetscCallA(PetscInitialize(ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscLogNestedBegin(ierr))
threshold = 1.0
PetscCallA(PetscLogSetThreshold(threshold,oldthreshold,ierr))
! dummy test of logging a reduction
#if defined(PETSC_USE_LOG)
ierr = PetscAReduce()
#endif
PetscCallMPIA(MPI_Comm_size(PETSC_COMM_WORLD,size,ierr))
PetscCallMPIA(MPI_Comm_rank(PETSC_COMM_WORLD,rank,ierr))
if (size .ne. 1) then; SETERRA(PETSC_COMM_SELF,PETSC_ERR_WRONG_MPI_SIZE,'Uniprocessor example'); endif

i2  = 2
i20 = 20
! - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!  Create nonlinear solver context
! - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

PetscCallA(SNESCreate(PETSC_COMM_WORLD,snes,ierr))

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!  Create matrix and vector data structures; set corresponding routines
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

!  Create vectors for solution and nonlinear function

PetscCallA(VecCreateSeq(PETSC_COMM_SELF,i2,x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDuplicate(x,r,ierr))

!  Create Jacobian matrix data structure

PetscCallA(MatCreate(PETSC_COMM_SELF,J,ierr))
PetscCallA(MatSetSizes(J,PETSC_DECIDE,PETSC_DECIDE,i2,i2,ierr))
PetscCallA(MatSetFromOptions(J,ierr))
PetscCallA(MatSetUp(J,ierr))

!  Set function evaluation routine and vector

PetscCallA(SNESSetFunction(snes,r,FormFunction,0,ierr))

!  Set Jacobian matrix data structure and Jacobian evaluation routine

PetscCallA(SNESSetJacobian(snes,J,J,FormJacobian,0,ierr))

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!  Customize nonlinear solver; set runtime options
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

!  Set linear solver defaults for this problem. By extracting the
!  KSP, KSP, and PC contexts from the SNES context, we can then
!  directly call any KSP, KSP, and PC routines to set various options.

PetscCallA(SNESGetKSP(snes,ksp,ierr))
PetscCallA(KSPGetPC(ksp,pc,ierr))
PetscCallA(PCSetType(pc,PCNONE,ierr))
tol = 1.e-4
PetscCallA(KSPSetTolerances(ksp,tol,PETSC_DEFAULT_REAL,PETSC_DEFAULT_REAL,i20,ierr))

!  Set SNES/KSP/KSP/PC runtime options, e.g.,
!      -snes_view -snes_monitor -ksp_type <ksp> -pc_type <pc>
!  These options will override those specified above as long as
!  SNESSetFromOptions() is called _after_ any other customization
!  routines.

PetscCallA(SNESSetFromOptions(snes,ierr))

PetscCallA(PetscOptionsHasName(PETSC_NULL_OPTIONS,PETSC_NULL_CHARACTER,'-setls',setls,ierr))

if (setls) then
PetscCallA(SNESGetLineSearch(snes, linesearch, ierr))
PetscCallA(SNESLineSearchSetType(linesearch, 'shell', ierr))
PetscCallA(SNESLineSearchShellSetUserFunc(linesearch, MyLineSearch,0,ierr))
endif

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!  Evaluate initial guess; then solve nonlinear system
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

!  Note: The user should initialize the vector, x, with the initial guess
!  for the nonlinear solver prior to calling SNESSolve().  In particular,
!  to employ an initial guess of zero, the user should explicitly set
!  this vector to zero by calling VecSet().

pfive = 0.5
PetscCallA(VecSet(x,pfive,ierr))
PetscCallA(SNESSolve(snes,PETSC_NULL_VEC,x,ierr))

!  View solver converged reason; we could instead use the option -snes_converged_reason
PetscCallA(SNESConvergedReasonView(snes,PETSC_VIEWER_STDOUT_WORLD,ierr))

PetscCallA(SNESGetIterationNumber(snes,its,ierr))
if (rank .eq. 0) then
write(6,100) its
endif
100 format('Number of SNES iterations = ',i5)

! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!  Free work space.  All PETSc objects should be destroyed when they
!  are no longer needed.
! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

PetscCallA(VecDestroy(x,ierr))
PetscCallA(VecDestroy(r,ierr))
PetscCallA(MatDestroy(J,ierr))
PetscCallA(SNESDestroy(snes,ierr))
#if defined(PETSC_USE_LOG)
PetscCallA(PetscViewerASCIIOpen(PETSC_COMM_WORLD,'filename.xml',viewer,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscViewerPushFormat(viewer,PETSC_VIEWER_ASCII_XML,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscLogView(viewer,ierr))
PetscCallA(PetscViewerDestroy(viewer,ierr))
#endif
PetscCallA(PetscFinalize(ierr))
end
!
! ------------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  FormFunction - Evaluates nonlinear function, F(x).
!
!  Input Parameters:
!  snes - the SNES context
!  x - input vector
!  dummy - optional user-defined context (not used here)
!
!  Output Parameter:
!  f - function vector
!
subroutine FormFunction(snes,x,f,dummy,ierr)
use petscsnes
implicit none

SNES     snes
Vec      x,f
PetscErrorCode ierr
integer dummy(*)

!  Declarations for use with local arrays

PetscScalar  lx_v(2),lf_v(2)
PetscOffset  lx_i,lf_i

!  Get pointers to vector data.
!    - For default PETSc vectors, VecGetArray() returns a pointer to
!      the data array.  Otherwise, the routine is implementation dependent.
!    - You MUST call VecRestoreArray() when you no longer need access to
!      the array.
!    - Note that the Fortran interface to VecGetArray() differs from the
!      C version.  See the Fortran chapter of the users manual for details.

PetscCall(VecGetArray(f,lf_v,lf_i,ierr))

!  Compute function

lf_a(1) = lx_a(1)*lx_a(1) + lx_a(1)*lx_a(2) - 3.0
lf_a(2) = lx_a(1)*lx_a(2) + lx_a(2)*lx_a(2) - 6.0

!  Restore vectors

PetscCall(VecRestoreArray(f,lf_v,lf_i,ierr))

return
end

! ---------------------------------------------------------------------
!
!  FormJacobian - Evaluates Jacobian matrix.
!
!  Input Parameters:
!  snes - the SNES context
!  x - input vector
!  dummy - optional user-defined context (not used here)
!
!  Output Parameters:
!  A - Jacobian matrix
!  B - optionally different preconditioning matrix
!
subroutine FormJacobian(snes,X,jac,B,dummy,ierr)
use petscsnes
implicit none

SNES         snes
Vec          X
Mat          jac,B
PetscScalar  A(4)
PetscErrorCode ierr
PetscInt idx(2),i2
integer dummy(*)

!  Declarations for use with local arrays

PetscScalar lx_v(2)
PetscOffset lx_i

!  Get pointer to vector data

i2 = 2

!  Compute Jacobian entries and insert into matrix.
!   - Since this is such a small problem, we set all entries for
!     the matrix at once.
!   - Note that MatSetValues() uses 0-based row and column numbers
!     in Fortran as well as in C (as set here in the array idx).

idx(1) = 0
idx(2) = 1
A(1) = 2.0*lx_a(1) + lx_a(2)
A(2) = lx_a(1)
A(3) = lx_a(2)
A(4) = lx_a(1) + 2.0*lx_a(2)
PetscCall(MatSetValues(B,i2,idx,i2,idx,A,INSERT_VALUES,ierr))

!  Restore vector

!  Assemble matrix

PetscCall(MatAssemblyBegin(B,MAT_FINAL_ASSEMBLY,ierr))
PetscCall(MatAssemblyEnd(B,MAT_FINAL_ASSEMBLY,ierr))
if (B .ne. jac) then
PetscCall(MatAssemblyBegin(jac,MAT_FINAL_ASSEMBLY,ierr))
PetscCall(MatAssemblyEnd(jac,MAT_FINAL_ASSEMBLY,ierr))
endif

return
end

subroutine MyLineSearch(linesearch, lctx, ierr)
use petscsnes
implicit none

SNESLineSearch    linesearch
SNES              snes
integer           lctx
Vec               x, f,g, y, w
PetscReal         ynorm,gnorm,xnorm
PetscErrorCode    ierr

PetscScalar       mone

mone = -1.0
PetscCall(SNESLineSearchGetSNES(linesearch, snes, ierr))
PetscCall(SNESLineSearchGetVecs(linesearch, x, f, y, w, g, ierr))
PetscCall(VecNorm(y,NORM_2,ynorm,ierr))
PetscCall(VecAXPY(x,mone,y,ierr))
PetscCall(SNESComputeFunction(snes,x,f,ierr))
PetscCall(VecNorm(f,NORM_2,gnorm,ierr))
PetscCall(VecNorm(x,NORM_2,xnorm,ierr))
PetscCall(VecNorm(y,NORM_2,ynorm,ierr))
PetscCall(SNESLineSearchSetNorms(linesearch, xnorm, gnorm, ynorm,ierr))
return
end


### Array Arguments#

This material is deprecated and will be removed in the next release since one should use VecGetArrayF90() and the other routines that utilize Fortran pointers, instead of the code below, but it is included for historical reasons and because many of the Fortran examples still utilize the old approach.

Since Fortran 77 does not allow arrays to be returned in routine arguments, all PETSc routines that return arrays, such as VecGetArray(), MatDenseGetArray(), and ISGetIndices(), are defined slightly differently in Fortran than in C. Instead of returning the array itself, these routines accept as input a user-specified array of dimension one and return an integer index to the actual array used for data storage within PETSc. The Fortran interface for several routines is as follows:

PetscScalar    xx_v(1), aa_v(1)
PetscErrorCode ierr
PetscInt       ss_v(1), dd_v(1), nloc
PetscOffset    ss_i, xx_i, aa_i, dd_i
Vec            x
Mat            A
IS             s
DM             d

call VecGetArray(x,xx_v,xx_i,ierr)
call MatDenseGetArray(A,aa_v,aa_i,ierr)
call ISGetIndices(s,ss_v,ss_i,ierr)


To access array elements directly, both the user-specified array and the integer index must then be used together. For example, the following Fortran program fragment illustrates directly setting the values of a vector array instead of using VecSetValues(). Note the (optional) use of the preprocessor #define statement to enable array manipulations in the conventional Fortran manner.

#define xx_a(ib)  xx_v(xx_i + (ib))

double precision xx_v(1)
PetscOffset      xx_i
PetscErrorCode   ierr
PetscInt         i, n
Vec              x
call VecGetArray(x,xx_v,xx_i,ierr)
call VecGetLocalSize(x,n,ierr)
do 10, i=1,n
xx_a(i) = 3*i + 1
10 continue
call VecRestoreArray(x,xx_v,xx_i,ierr)


The Vec ex4f Tutorial listed above contains an example of using VecGetArray() within a Fortran routine.

Since in this case the array is accessed directly from Fortran, indexing begins with 1, not 0 (unless the array is declared as xx_v(0:1)). This is different from the use of VecSetValues() where, indexing always starts with 0.

Note: If using VecGetArray(), MatDenseGetArray(), or ISGetIndices(), from Fortran, the user must not compile the Fortran code with options to check for “array entries out of bounds” (e.g., on the IBM RS/6000 this is done with the -C compiler option, so never use the -C option with this).